In FAQs about Affordable Care Act Implementation (Part XXVI), the U.S. Department of Labor, the Department of Health and Human Services and the Treasury (the "Departments") provide guidance on rules pertaining to coverage of preventive services under the Affordable Care Act.
Background. The FAQs provide the following background. Section 2713 of the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act) and its implementing regulations relating to coverage of preventive services require non-grandfathered group health plans to provide benefits for, and prohibit the imposition of cost-sharing requirements with respect to, the following:
• Evidenced-based items or services that have in effect a rating of "A" or "B" in the current recommendations of the United States Preventive Services Task Force ("USPSTF") with respect to the individual involved, except for the recommendations of the USPSTF regarding breast cancer screening, mammography, and prevention issued in or around November 2009;
• Immunizations for routine use in children, adolescents, and adults that have in effect a recommendation from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ("ACIP") of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ("CDC") with respect to the individual involved;
• With respect to infants, children, and adolescents, evidence-informed preventive care and screenings provided for in comprehensive guidelines supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA); and
• With respect to women, evidence-informed preventive care and screening provided for in comprehensive guidelines supported by HRSA, to the extent not included in certain recommendations of the USPSTF.
If a recommendation or guideline does not specify the frequency, method, treatment, or setting for the provision of a recommended preventive service, the plan may use reasonable medical management techniques to determine any such coverage limitations.
Topics Covered by the FAQs. In summary, the FAQs say the following:
--Coverage of breast cancer testing: A plan MUST cover, without cost sharing, recommended genetic counseling and BRCA testing (that is, testing for breast cancer susceptibility genes) for a woman who has not been diagnosed with BRCA-related cancer, but who previously had breast cancer, ovarian cancer, or other cancer.
--Coverage of Food and Drug Administration ("FDA")-approved contraceptives: Plans must cover, without cost sharing, at least one form of contraception in each of the methods (currently 18) that the FDA has identified for women in its current Birth Control Guide. This coverage must also include the clinical services, including patient education and counseling, needed for provision of the contraceptive method. The Departments will apply this guidance for plan years beginning on or after the date that is 60 days after publication of these FAQs.
Further, if a plan covers some forms of oral contraceptives, some types of IUDs, and some types of diaphragms without cost sharing, but excludes completely other forms of contraception, the plan does NOT comply with PHS Act section 2713 and its implementing regulations. Also, if a plan covers oral contraceptives (such as the extended/continuous use contraceptive pill), it may NOT impose cost sharing on all items and services within other FDA-identified hormonal contraceptive methods (such as the vaginal contraceptive ring or the contraceptive patch).
--Coverage of sex-specific recommended preventive services: A plan may NOT limit sex-specific recommended preventive services based on an individual's sex assigned at birth, gender identity or recorded gender.
--Coverage of well-woman preventive care for dependents: If a plan covers dependent children, the plan is NOT required to cover (without cost sharing) recommended women's preventive care services for dependent children, including services related to pregnancy, such as preconception and prenatal care.
--Coverage of colonscopies pursuant to USPTF recommendations: The plan may NOT impose cost sharing with respect to anesthesia services performed in connection with the preventive colonoscopy, if the attending provider determines that anesthesia would be medically appropriate for the individual.